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I'm not as active in the modding scene as I used to be, but I was quite involved in the earlier days of the ortho scene before Fostex madness took over. I am perhaps more notable for my driver transplants than my modding schemes. These days, I'm settled with my modded HE-6 and keep to simpler damping/modding schemes for my headphones.
For closed headphones, I almost universally stick some acoustic foam onto the inner cup surface (perhaps a rubber backed one if I want extra cup damping, or a dynamat layer first) and felts into cavity to reduce reflections as well as reduce enclosure resonance of external noise (which often magnifies midbass sounds). While some people like to use harder reflectors (like paper) or patterned arrangements of differing density materials behind the driver, I personally feel this creates an uneveness to the sound despite flatter objective frequency response. I find cups that are packed too densely also have a "dead" sound to them, despite again having a perhaps flatter sound. I used to spend a lot of time with rear damping, but nowadays tend to follow my general "recipe" with perhaps only a tweak or two before moving onto...
Front damping schemes; these used to be neglected in favour of rear mods, but they seem to be picking up now. Again, I have a general recipe here. It essentially boils down to covering every hard surface I can find with felt. Exposed surface around the driver? Cover it up. Are there paper filter covered holes on the baffle underneath the pads? Stick a ring of felt to give some air but also damp out the plastic. Is the backside of the pads a hard yucky plastic? Cut it out or snip in a bunch of holes. Etc.
For that matter, pads make a huge difference. The seal of the pads (both on your face and to the baffle) typically affects bass response, and the absorptivity/softness will play wonky with upper end frequency response.
My general lazy front recipe? just a big flat layer of soft felt that covers the entire opening and fits under the pads. Yeah it gets murky at times, but I'm also super treble sensitive so it works for me in the long run.